Penguins are dinosaurs, and since there were some exciting discoveries of fossils of giant penguins in the news this week, it seems like a good time to share these problems from the

Emperor penguins are the largest living species of penguin. They have an average height of 120 cm and weigh up to 45 kg.

But 60 million years ago, there were penguins living in New Zealand which grew quite a bit larger. These humongous penguins are called

A fossilized

On Seymour Island in Antarctica, a

*Math Problems with Dinosaurs*book. Here we'll use proportions to derive size estimates for some cute, cuddly, very large extinct Sphenisciformes.Emperor penguins are the largest living species of penguin. They have an average height of 120 cm and weigh up to 45 kg.

But 60 million years ago, there were penguins living in New Zealand which grew quite a bit larger. These humongous penguins are called

*Kumimanu biceae*.A fossilized

**femur**of*Kumimanu*was found to measure 16.1 cm.

**※**A 120-cm tall emperor penguin has a femur of length 10.5 cm. If we assume that the ratio of femur length to total height is the same for all penguins, how tall was*Kumimanu*?On Seymour Island in Antarctica, a

**tarsometatarsus**bone of a different penguin species,*Palaeeudyptes klekowskii*(the “colossus penguin”) was found. It measured 9.1 cm.**※**If our 120-cm-tall emperor penguin has a tarsometatarsus measuring 5.2 cm, and if we assume that the ratio of tarsometatarsus length to total height is the same for all penguins, how tall was*Palaeeudyptes*?
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